Propolis as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory for patients with chronic kidney disease

Propolis displays a range of salutogenic properties, such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, including modulation of the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and increasing antioxidants enzymes. Thus, propolis can be an excellent nutritional therapeutic to mitigate inflammation, common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this lecture, the possible salutogenic effects of propolis for patients with CKD will be presented.
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